Heavy metals & Toxins: 

Public health issues

Health benefits from Chlorella, Spirulina

Health benefits from probiotics

Heavy Metals and Toxins:

Public Health issues

What gets known gets measured!

What gets measured gets done!


Mercury in Dental Amalgams

  1. Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission.   Mutter J.  J Occup Med Toxicol. 2011 Jan 13;6(1):2

  2. Dental amalgam and mercury in dentistry  Australian Dental Journal 2000;45:(4):224-234 

  3. Amalgam studies: Disregarding basic principles of mercury toxicity.   J.Mutter, J.Naumann, C.Sadaghiani, H.Walach. Institute for Environmental Medicine and Hospital Epidemiology, Freiburg, Germany

  4.  Biologische Zahnheilkunde.  Dr. Dominik Nischwitz, Dr. Neubauer, Zahnarzt Praxis

  5.  A Review of Mercury Exposure and Health of Dental Personnel.  Nagpal et al, 2016

  6. Mercury exposure and health impacts in dental personnel. JanAaseth et al, Environment Research, Volume 164, July 2018, Pages 65-69

  7. Exposure to mercury vapor and impact on health in the dental profession in Sweden. Journal of Dental Research  S.Langworth et al 1997

  8. Association between dental amalgam fillings and Alzheimer’s disease.  Sun et al. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy (2015) 7:65

  9. Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue.  Eggleston DW, Nylander M.  J Prosthet Dent. 1987   Dec;58(6):704-7

  10. Dental amalgam and mercury levels in autopsy tissues: food for thought. Guzzi G et al.  Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006 Mar;27(1):42-5.

  11. Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations. Skare I, Engqvist A. Arch Environ Health. 1994 Sep-Oct;49(5):384-94.

  12.  Symptoms of intoxication in dentists associated with exposure to low levels of mercury.   Neghab M et al. Ind Health. 2011;49(2):249-54.

  13.  Mercury-induced oxidative stress may adversely affect pregnancy outcome among dental staff: a cohort study.  The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, volume 9, N° 3 July (2018), Aziza El-Badry, Mohamed Rezk, Hanan El-Sayed


  1. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries. Environ Res. 2015 Aug;141:58-68. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.029. Castaño A et al.

  2. Current approaches of the management of mercury poisoning: need of the hour.  DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014 22:46  © Rafati-Rahimzadeh et al. 

  3. Predicted mercury concentrations in hair from infant immunizations: cause for concern.  ​Redwood L, Bernard S, Brown D.  Neurotoxicology. 2001 Oct;22(5):691-7.

  4. Fish and fish products as risk factors of mercury exposure.  Environ Med. 2018 Sep 25;25(3):488-493. Kimáková T, et al.

  5. Recent advances in evaluation of health effects on mercury with special reference to methylmercury-A minireview.  Environ Health Prev Med. 2006 Jul;11(4):171-6. Honda S, Hylander L, Sakamoto M.


  1. Childhood Correlates of Blood Lead Levels in Mumbai and Delhi.  Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Mar; 114(3): 466–470. Nitin B. Jain, Howard Hu

  2. From Lead Exposure in Early Childhood to Adolescent Health: A Chicago Birth Cohort.    Am J Public Health. 2017 Sep;107(9):1496-1501. Winter AS, Sampson RJ.

  3. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?  J Med Toxicol. 2014 Sep;10(3):311-5. Bautista AC, Puschner B, et al

  4. Practice-based evidence informs environmental health policy and regulation: a case study of residential lead-soil contamination in Rhode Island. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jan 15;468-469:514-22. Thompson MR, Burdon A, Boekelheide K.

  5. Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.    J Environ Health. 2013 Mar;75(7):22-7.  Boraiko C, Wright EM, Ralston F. 

  6. Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 2: site-specific human health risk assessment of Cd and Pb contamination in kitchen gardens.   Environ Monit Assess. 2013 Apr;185(4):2999-3012. Pelfrêne A et al.

  7. Lead contamination in French children's homes and environment.   Environ Res. 2012 Jul;116:58-65.  Lucas JP, Le Bot B, Glorennec P et al.

  8. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.  Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(1):739-46.   Edwards M.

  9. Lead exposure from food: the German LExUKon projectFood Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(6):1052-63.  Schneider K, et al.

  10. Retrospective evaluation of lead contamination in honey from 2005 to present in northeastern Italy and future perspectives in the light of updated legislation.   Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2016 Sep;9(3):198-202.   Martinello M, Dainese N et al. 

  11. Salivary lead in relation to caries, salivary factors and cariogenic bacteria in children.  Int Dent J. 2013 Jun;63(3):123-9.   Youravong N et al.


  1. Drinking Water Arsenic Contamination, Skin Lesions, and Malignancies: A Systematic Review of the Global Evidence.   Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015 Mar;2(1):52-68.  Karagas MR1, Gossai A, Pierce B, Ahsan H.

  2. Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh.   Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2014;31(12):1982-92.  Islam MS, Ahmed MK et al.

  3. Public health responses to arsenic in rice and other foods.  JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Aug 12;173(15):1395-6.  Navas-Acien A, Nachman KE.

  4. Arsenic Content in American Wine.  J Environ Health. 2015 Oct;78(3):16-22. Wilson D.



  1. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/aluminums-role-in-cnsimmune-system-interactions-leading-to-neurological-disorders-14822-1745-7580-9-069.pdf

  2. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49676.  Genuis SJ, Schwalfenberg G, Siy AK, Rodushkin I.  

  3. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.  Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 Aug;70(3):299-304.  Fewtrell MS et al.

  4. Aluminium levels in spices and aromatic herbs.  Sci Total Environ. 2000 Aug 10;257(2-3):191-7. Lopez et al.

  5. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake estimate in Greece. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2012;5(1):33-44.  Bratakos SM et al. 

  6. There is (still) too much aluminium in infant formulas.  BMC Pediatr. 2010 Aug 31;10:63.  Burrell SA, Exley C. 

Air, Volatile Organic Compounds

  1. Environmental Determinants of Chronic Disease and Medical Approaches: Recognition, Avoidance, Supportive Therapy, and Detoxification. J Environ Public Health. 2012; 2012: 356798. Margaret E. Sears and  Stephen J. Genuis

  2. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Apr 25;11(5):4607-18.  Barnes BR.

  3. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.  Curr Probl Cardiol. 2015 May;40(5):207-38.  Franklin BA, Brook R, Arden Pope C 3rd.

  4. Urban air pollution and respiratory infections.  Paediatr Respir Rev. 2014 Jun;15(2):194-9, Brugha R, Grigg J. 

  5. Air pollution irreversibly impairs lung function: a twenty-year follow-up of officially acknowledged victims in Japan. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013 Jul;230(3):177-84. Yanagita Y et al.

  6. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2016 Aug;18:74-81.  Maheswaran R. 

  7. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general populationSci Total Environ. 2013 Oct 1;463-464:176-81. Lin LY et al. 

Persistent Organic Pollutants: Dioxins, PCB's, ...

  1. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and self-reported cardiovascular disease prevalence.   Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Aug;115(8):1204-9. Ha MH, Lee DH, Jacobs DR 

  2. Gut Dysbiosis in Animals Due to Environmental Chemical Exposures.  Rosenfeld  Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 7:396. Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

  3. Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.   Herndon, J.M. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash  Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9375-9390.

  4. For a healthier future: a virtuous cycle for reducing exposure to persistent organic pollutants.  Mori C1,2, Todaka E2. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Jul;71(7):660-662. 

  5. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.   Occup Environ Med. 2013 Sep;70(9):656-62. Tai PT et al.

  6. Dioxin in Food and Human Health.   Otles et al. EJEAFChe, 2 (5), 2003. [593-608]

  7. Reduction of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human body.  Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2007 Apr;98(4):106-13. Mochida Y, Fukata H, Matsuno Y, Mori C.

  8. Strong correlation between the concentration of dioxins and total PCBs in current Japanese people.   Chemosphere. 2008 Aug;73(1 Suppl):S235-8. Mori C et al.   

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters--what we have learned from Yusho disease.  Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):2-11. Aoki Y

  10. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy.  Environ Pollut. 2015 Nov;206:429-36.  Squadrone S, Brizio P et al. 


  1. Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2011 Jun; 38(2): 75–81. Won Heum Nah et al.

  2. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility. Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Jun;30:53-68. Dixon RL, Sherins RJ, Lee IP. 

  3. B-vitamin and homocysteine status determines ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment in sheep. Biol Reprod. 2009 Apr;80(4):743-52. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.108.072074. Kanakkaparambil R et al.

  4. Benzene exposure near the U.S. permissible limit is associated with sperm aneuploidy. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun;118(6):833-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901531. Xing C et al.

  5. Associations between blood metals and fecundity among women residing in New York State. Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Feb; 31(2): 158–163. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.09.013 Michael S. Bloom et al.

  6. Heavy Metals and Couple Fecundity, the LIFE Study  Chemosphere. 2012 Jun; 87(11): 1201–1207. Germaine M. Buck Louis et al.

  7. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc in the tissues of reproductive organs of men. J Reprod Fertil. 1993 Nov;99(2):421-5. Oldereid NB 

  8. Endocrine disruptor & nutritional effects of heavy metals in ovarian hyperstimulation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2011 Dec;28(12):1223-8. doi: 10.1007/s10815-011-9652-3. Dickerson EH et al.

  9. Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroidfunction during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Aug 1; 168(3): 298–310. Chevrier J et al. 

  10. Endometriosis and organochlorinated environmental pollutants: a case-control study on Italianwomen of reproductive age. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jul;117(7):1070-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800273. Porpora MG et al.

  11. Environmental pollutants, a possible etiology for premature ovarian insufficiency: a narrative review
    of animal and human data 
     Environ Health. 2017 Apr 7;16(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0242-4. Vabre P et al. 

  12.  Exposure to endocrine disruptors during adulthood: consequences for female fertility. J Endocrinol. 2017 Jun;233(3):R109-R129. doi: 10.1530/JOE-17-0023. Rattan S et al. 

  13. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic.  Reprod Toxicol. 2015 Jan;51:125-132. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.01.003. Wright DL et al.

  14.  Iron and copper in male reproduction: a double-edged sword.  J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015 Jan;32(1):3-16. doi: 10.1007/s10815-014-0344-7. Tvrda E et al

  15. Endocrine disruptor & nutritional effects of heavy metals in ovarian hyperstimulation.  J Assist Reprod Genet. 2011 Dec;28(12):1223-8. doi: 10.1007/s10815-011-9652-3. Dickerson EH et al. 

  16. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies. Asian J Androl. 2016 May-Jun;18(3):410-8. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.175779. Yao DF, Mills JN 

Medical conditions benefiting from Chlorella, Spirulina

Deep dive into the know

Stay tune for the upcoming new additions



  1. Light-harvesting chlorophyll pigments enable mammalian mitochondria to capture photogenic energy and produce ATP.  Journal of Cell Science Chen Xu, Junhua Zhang, et al J Cell Sci  2014  127: 388-399;  doi: 10.1242/jcs.134262 

  2. Sequestration of ubiquitous dietary derived pigments enables mitochondrial light sensing.  Zhang, D. et al. Sci. Rep. 6, 34320; doi: 10.1038/srep34320 (2016)

  3. Evaluation of Microalgae for use as Nutraceuticals and Nutritional Supplements.  J Nutr Food Sci 2:147. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000147  Bishop WM, Zubeck HM (2012)

Detoxification, Chelation, Absorption, Excretion

  1. Effective mechanisms of action in support of a natural detoxification. Die Naturheikunde 04/2017, ISSN 1613-3943 J.Ullmann

  2. The Long-Term Algae Extract (Chlorella and Fucus sp) and Aminosulphurate Supplementation Modulate SOD-1 Activity and Decrease Heavy Metals (Hg++, Sn) Levels in Patients with Long-Term Dental Titanium Implants and Amalgam Fillings Restorations. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Apr; 8(4): 101.  José Joaquín Merino et al.

  3. Protective effects of Chlorella vulgaris in lead-exposed mice infected with Lysteria monocytogenes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jun;3(6):889-900.  Querioz ML et al.

  4. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells for the accumulation of heavy metals. J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 80 (3) 407–419 (2015). A König-Peter et al. 

  5. Algenpräparat hilfreich bei Amalgamausleitung. Dr. Klinghardt Institute, Expertise Volume 48, Issue 7, July 1999

  6. Mercury Toxicity and Systemic Elimination Agents. Dr. Klinghardt et al, Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine (2001) 11, 53-62

  7. Chlorella Accelerates Dioxin Excretion in RatsThe Journal of Nutrition. Kunimasa Morita, Takahiko Matsueda, et al; Volume 129, Issue 9, 1 September 1999, Pages 1731–1736

  8. Chlorophyll Derived from Chlorella Inhibits Dioxin Absorption from the Gastrointestinal Tract and Accelerates Dioxin Excretion in Rats.  Kunimasa Morita et al, Environmental Health Perspectives, volume 109, number 3, March 2001 

  9. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats.  Nutrition Research and Practice. Shim JA, Son YA, Park JM, Kim MK.   2009;3(1):15-22. doi:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.1.15.

  10. Chlorella vulgaris restores bone marrow cellularity and cytokine production in lead-exposed mice.  Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Nov;49(11):2934-41, Queiroz ML1, da Rocha MC, Torello CO et al. 

  11. Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats.    J Nutr. 1999 Sep;129(9):1731-6. Morita K1, Matsueda T, Iida T, Hasegawa T.

  12. Evaluation of Chlorella as a Decorporation Agent to Enhance the Elimination of RadioactiveStrontium from Body.   PLoS ONE 11(2): e0148080. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148080 Ogawa K, Fukuda T, Han J, Kitamura Y, Shiba K, Odani A (2016)

  13. The enhanced elimination of tissue methylmercury in Parachlorella beijerinckii-fed mice. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences/Volume 36 (2011) Issue 1 , T.Uchikawa et al.

  14. The influence of Parachlorella beyerinckii CK-5 on the absorption and excretion of methylmercury (MeHg) in mice.  J Toxicol Sci. 2010 Feb;35(1):101-5.  Uchikawa T, Yasutake A, et al. 

  15. Synergistic effect of co-exposure to cadmium (II) and 4-n-nonylphenol on growth inhibition and oxidative stress of Chlorella sorokiniana. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jun 15;154:145-153. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.039, Wang L et al.

Weight management, Metabolism support

  1. Hepatoprotection of Chlorella against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Oxidative Damage In Vivo.  International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pathophysiology and Drugs Research September-October 2009 vol. 23 no. 5 747-754 Hsin-Yi Peng, Yu-Chan Chu

  2. Antioxidant and anti-cataract effects of Chlorella on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Oct;49(5):334-9. Shibata S, Natori Y, et al. 

  3. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment.  Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3001-13.  Cherng JY, Shih MF.  Jong-Yuh C, Mei-Fen S.

  4. Effect of dried, powdered Chlorella vulgaris on experimental atherosclerosis and alimentary hypercholesterolemia in cholesterol-fed rabbits.  Artery. 1987;14(2):76-84.  Sano T, Tanaka Y. 

  5. Potential hypoglycemic effects of Chlorella in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Life Sci. 2005 Jul 15;77(9):980-90. 

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki and normal Wistar rats. Nutr Res Pract. 2009 Spring; 3(1): 23–30. Hyejin Jeong et al.

  7. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet. Nutr Res Pract  2008 Winter; 2(4): 204–210.  Hee Sun Lee, Hoon Jung Park, and Mi Kyung Kim.

  8. Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012 Oct;59(119):2099-2103. doi: 10.5754/hge10860. Panahi Y, Ghamarchehreh ME, et al. 

  9. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Dec;52(6):457-66.  Sansawa H1, Takahashi M, Tsuchikura S, Endo H.

  10. Bioassay-guided purification and identification of PPARalpha/gamma agonists from Chlorella sorokiniana.   Phytother Res. 2008 May;22(5):605-13. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2280.  Chou YC, Prakash E et al   

  11. Nutrigenomic studies of effects of Chlorella on subjects with high-risk factors for lifestyle-related disease.  J Med Food. 2008 Sep;11(3):395-404. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2006.0180.  Mizoguchi T et al

  12. Beneficial effects of Chlorella on glucose and lipid metabolism in obese rodents on a high-fat diet.   Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar-Apr;7(2):e95-e105. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2013.01.002. Noguchi N, Konishi F et al.    

  13. Chlorella ingestion suppresses resistin gene expression in peripheral blood cells of borderline diabetics.  Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2015 Jun;10(3):e95-e101. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2015.04.002.  Itakura H et al.

  14. Effect of dried, powdered Chlorella vulgaris on experimental atherosclerosis and alimentary hypercholesterolemia in cholesterol-fed rabbits.  Artery. 1987;14(2):76-84.  Sano T, Tanaka Y. 

  15. Antioxidant and anti-cataract effects of Chlorella on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003 Oct;49(5):334-9. Shibata S, Natori Y, Nishihara T, Tomisaka K, Matsumoto K, Sansawa H, Nguyen VC.

  16. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment.  Life Sci. 2005 May 13;76(26):3001-13. Cherng JY, Shih MF.

  17. Potential hypoglycemic effects of Chlorella in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Jong-Yuh C, Mei-Fen S. Life Sci. 2005 Jul 15;77(9):980-90

  18. A randomized study to establish the effects of spirulina in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Nutr Res Pract. 2008 Winter;2(4):295-300. Lee EH, Park JE, Choi YJ, Huh KB, Kim WY.

  19. Effects of Spirulina platensis on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, and tissue damage in kidney of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Apr;43(4):345-354 Gargouri M, Hamed H et al

  20. Hypocholesterolemic effect of spirulina in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndrome. J Med Food. 2002 Summer;5(2):91-6 Samuels R, Mani UV, Iyer UM, Nayak US.

  21. The Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on Liver En-zymes, Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Health Promot Perspect. 2014; 4(1): 107–115. Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Aliashrafi S, Javadzadeh Y, AsghariJafarabadi M.

  22. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  Nutr J. 2014; 13: 57. Na Hee Ryu et al.

Immunity Response

  1. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation.   Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:53, Jung Hyun Kwak , Seung Han Baek et al.

  2. Effects of chlorella on activities of protein tyrosine phosphatases, matrix metalloproteinases, caspases, cytokine release, B and T cell proliferations.  J Med Food. 2004 Summer;7(2):146-52. Cheng FC et al.

  3. Isolation and structural characterization of an Arabinogalactan and a Galactofuranan from the green microalgae chlorella pyrenoidosa: Effects of molecular weight on immunostimulatory effects. Biomacromolecules 2006 , 7, 2368-2376, ER Suarez, JA Kralovec, CJ Barrow, Bruce Grindley et al, 

  4. Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection. Infect Immun. 1986 Aug; 53(2): 267–271. K Tanaka, T Koga, F Konishi et al. 

  5. Safety and immunoenhancing effect of a Chlorella-derived dietary supplement in healthy adults undergoing influenza vaccination. CMAJ. 2003 Jul 22;169(2):111-7. Halperin SA et al. 

  6. Efficacy and safety of Chlorella supplementation in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.  World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 21; 19(7): 1085–1090.  Jose Azocar and Arley Diaz.

  7. Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection.  Infect Immun. 1986 Aug; 53(2): 267–271. Queiroz ML  

  8. Augmentation of the resistance against Escherichia coli by oral administration of a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris in rats.  Int J Immunopharmacol. 1989;11(8):971-6.  Hasegawa T et al. 

  9. Enhanced resistance against Escherichia coli infection by subcutaneous administration of the hot-water extract of Chlorella vulgaris in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1990;32(1):1-7. Konishi F et al. 

  10. Protective effect of an acidic glycoprotein obtained from culture of Chlorella vulgaris against myelosuppression by 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1996 Jun;42(5):268-74.   Konishi F, Mitsuyama M, Okuda M, Tanaka K, Hasegawa T, Nomoto K.  

  11. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality. Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 12;6:24253. Chen YH et al

Anti-Aging & Chronic Diseases

  1. Chlorella Vulgaris Modulates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced DNA Damage and Telomere Shortening. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6(4): 560–572. S Makpol et al.

  2. Ingestion of Chlorella reduced the oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids in senior Japanese subjects.  J Oleo Sci. 2013;62(11):873-81.

  3. Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on the modulation of oxidative stress in apparently healthy smokers. Clin Lab. 2013;59(5-6):579-87. Panahi Y 

  4. Six-week supplementation with Chlorella has favorable impact on antioxidant status in Korean male smokers.  Nutrition. 2010 Feb;26(2):175-83. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2009.03.010. Lee SH. 

  5. Oral administration of a unicellular green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, prevents stress-induced ulcer. Tanaka K et al.  Planta Med. 1997 Oct;63(5):465-6. 

  6. Effects of lutein and chlorophyll b on GSH depletion and DNA damage induced by cisplatin in vivo.  Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013 Aug;32(8):828-36.  Serpeloni JM et al.

  7. A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis.   Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):79-91. Review. Merchant RE, Andre CA. 

  8. Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on the modulation of oxidative stress in apparently healthy smokers. Clin Lab. 2013;59(5-6):579-87. Panahi et al

  9. Six-week supplementation with Chlorella has favorable impact on antioxidant status in Korean male smokers. Nutrition. 2010 Feb;26(2):175-83. Lee Sh, Kang HJ et al.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

  1. Chlorella Supplementation Decreases Dioxin.   Shiro Nakano, Hideo Takekoshi, and Masuo Nakano.Journal of Medicinal Food.Mar 2007.

  2. Chlorella suppresses methylmercury transfer to the fetus.  J Toxicol Sci. 2011 Takuya Uchikawa, Isao Maruyama, Shoichiro Kumamoto, Yotaro Ando, Akira Yasutake

  3. Effects of Chlorella Supplementation on Decreasing Concentrations of Dioxins in the Blood of Pregnant Japanese Women. Clinics Mother Child Health 2015, 12:2 DOI: 10.4172/2090-7214.1000175 Maruyama et al.,

  4. Maternal-fetal distribution and transfer of dioxins in pregnant women in Japan.  Chemosphere. 2005 Dec;61(9):1244-55, Nakano S et al.

Oral Microbiome and Oral Health

  1. Gut Microbiota and Salivary Diagnostics: The Mouth Is Salivating to Tell Us Something. Biores Open Access. 2017 Oct. Kodukula K et al.

  2. Probiotics: A Promising Role in Dental Health. Dentistry Journal 2017, 5, 26; doi:10.3390/dj5040026 Sari A. Mahasneh et al.

  3. Resilience of the Oral Microbiota in Health: Mechanisms That Prevent Dysbiosis. Journal of Dental Research. 2018 Apr. Rosier et al.

  4. Oral Microbiome: A New Biomarker Reservoir for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers. Theranostics. 2017 doi: 10.7150/thno.21804 Yenkai Lim et al.

  5. Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities. Reid, G., Younes, J., Van der Mei, H. et al. Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities. Nat Rev Microbiol 9, 27–38 (2011) doi:10.1038/nrmicro2473

  6. Purification and characterization of ribosomal proteins L27 and L30 having antimicrobial activity produced by the Lactobacillus salivarius SGL03. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2017/1329  doi:10.1111/jam.13646 P.Pidutti et al.

  7. Inhibitory effect of oral Lactobacillus against oral pathogens. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2011 July doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03132.x R. Teanpaisan et al.

  8. Action of probiotics on oral pathogens: Efficacy and controversies. Dental, Oral and Craniofacial Research 2015 R.Gomes et al.

  9. Probiotics and oral health: a review. Journal of International Oral Health 2015; 7(10):133-136  Gaurav Agarwal et al.

  10. Resilience of the Oral Microbiota in Health: Mechanisms That Prevent Dysbiosis. Journal of Dental Research. 2018 Apr;97(4):371-380.B. T. Rosier et al

  11. The oral microbiome - an update for oral healthcare professionals.  British Dental Journal, 221 (10). pp. 657-666. M.Kilian et al

Bacterial strains in non-surgical periodontitis treatment

Anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacilli on caries and decay.

  1. A critical assessment of the "sterile womb" and "in utero colonization" hypotheses: implications for research on the pioneer infant microbiome. Microbiome. 2017 Apr 28;5(1):48. Perez-Muñoz ME, Arrieta MC, Ramer-Tait AE, Walter J.

  2. Antibiotic use during pregnancy: how bad is it? BMC Med. 2016 Jun 17;14(1):91. Kuperman AA, Koren O 

  3.  The potential role of gut microbiota at birth in programming future health. GMFH 2018 Olivier Goulet, Video

  4. On the importance of gut microbiota both during pregnancy and early life. GMFH 2018 Olivier Goulet. 

  5. Cutting Edge: Critical Roles for Microbiota-Mediated Regulation of the Immune System in a Prenatal Immune Activation Model of Autism.     J Immunol. 2018 Aug 1;201(3):845-850. Lammert CR, Frost EL et al.

  6. Microbial Changes during Pregnancy, Birth, and Infancy. Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1031. Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren

  7. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Dec;130(6):1355-60. Rautava et al.

  8. Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. Simpson et al. BMC Dermatology (2015) 15:13 DOI 10.1186/s12895-015-0030-1 . Melanie Rae Simpson et al.

  9. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and AgingFront Microbiol. 2016; 7: 1204. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01204. Silvia Arboleya, Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton and  R. Paul Ross 

  10. Probiotics During Pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association. Dugoua, Jean-Jacqques et al. Elias, Jackie, Bozzo, Pina, and Einarson, Adrienne. Azad, Meghan, et al. Johnson, Kate


Oral Health

Intestinal Health benefits

from probiotics

What probiotics bring to us

Stay tune for the upcoming new additions


  1. Vertical mother-neonate transfer of maternal gut bacteria via breastfeeding. Environ Microbiol. 2014 Sep;16(9):2891-904 Joy T at al.

  2. Breastfed at Tiffany's. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016 Jun;41(6):508-518. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2016.02.008. Hennet T, Borsig L.

  3. Intervention for Dysbiosis in Children Born by C-Section. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;73 Suppl 3:33-39. doi: 10.1159/000490847.. Francavilla R, Cristofori F, Tripaldi ME, Indrio F.

  4. Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharidefunctions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Jan 15:1-12. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1414030. Akkerman R, Faas MM, de Vos P. 

  5. A review of the source and function of microbiota in breast milk. Semin Reprod Med. 2014 Jan;32(1):68-73. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1361824. Latuga MS, Stuebe A, Seed PC.  

  6. Differential Establishment of Bifidobacteria in the Breastfed Infant Gut. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2017;88:149-159. doi: 10.1159/000455399. Lewis ZT, Mills DA. 

  7. Role of the Human Breast Milk-Associated Microbiota on the Newborns' Immune System: A MiniReview.  Front Microbiol. 2017 Oct 25;8:2100. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02100. Toscano M et al. 

  8. Microbiota of human breast tissue. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 May;80(10):3007-14. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00242-14. Urbaniak C et al. 

  9. The Microbiota of Breast Tissue and Its Association with Breast Cancer. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Jul 29;82(16):5039-48. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01235-16. Urbaniak C et al. 

  10. Does Breastfeeding Shape Food Preferences? Links to Obesity. Ann Nutr Metab. 2017;70 Suppl 3:8-15. doi: 10.1159/000478757. Ventura AK.  

Children 2-8 years

Not all probiotics are alike: Lactobact® successfully and repeatedly passed the world's most demanding test

  1. The Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®)Springler 20135 Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium. Tom Van de Wiele et al

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